Catalonia protests: Marches and general strike paralyse Barcelona
A general strike was announced and five huge marches, all peaceful, converged on the city centre, bringing the streets to a standstill.
Police estimated that more than 500,000 people had joined Friday's rallies.
Protesters also blocked a motorway on the Spain-France border, causing huge tailbacks.
There were 17 arrests across the region on Friday, Spanish newspaper El País reported, and 62 people were injured - 41 of them in Barcelona.
Catalan regional leader Quim Torra thanked those who had demonstrated peacefully and criticised the rioters.